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Transesophageal echocardiography

Submitted by Dr. Yasser Mokhtar, MD. Dept. of internal medicine. School of medicine, University of South Dakota.

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TEE improves diagnostic information in various cardiovascular diseases compared to conventional echo.
 
 

 
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References

-  Cucchiara RF, Nugent M, Seward JB, Messick JM. Air embolism in upright neurosurgical patients: detection and localization two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. Anesthesiology 1984; 60: 353-355. Quoted from 

-  Currie PJ. Transesophageal echocardiography: new window to the heart. Circulation 1989; 80: 215-217. 

-  Daigle RE, Miller CW, Histand MB, et al. Non traumatic aortic blood flow sensing by use of an ultrasonic esophageal probe. J Appl Physiol 1975; 38: 1153-1160. Quoted from 

-  DiMagno EP, Buxton JL, Regan PT, Hattey RR, Wilson DA, Suarez JR & Green PS. Ultrasonic endoscope. Lancet 1980; 1: 629-631. Quoted from  

-  Frazin L, Talano JV, Stephanides L, Loeb HS, Kopel L & Gunnar RM. Esophageal echocardiography. Circulation 1976; 54:102-108. Quoted from 

-  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K & Yoshida S. A new transesophageal real time two dimensional echocardiographic system using a flexible tube and its clinical application. Proc Jpn Soc Ultrasonics Med 1977; 32: 43-44. Quoted from 

-  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Ichie Y. A new transesophageal real time linear scanner and initial clinical results. Proc Jpn Soc Ultrasonics Med 1978; 35: 115-116. Quoted from 

-  Kremer P, Schwartz L, Calahan Mk, et al. Intraoperative monitoring of left ventricular performance by transesophageal M-mode and two dimensional echocardiography (Abstract). Am J Cardiol 1982; 49: 956. Quoted from 

-  Matsumoto M, Oka Y, Strom J, et al. Application of transesophageal echocardiography to continuous intra-operative monitoring of left ventricular performance. Am J Cardiol 1980; 46: 95-105. Quoted from 

-  Schl?er M, Langenstein BA, Polster J, et al. Transesophageal cross sectional echocardiography with a phased array transducer system: technique and initial clinical results. Br Heart J 1982; 48: 67-72. Quoted from 

-  Seward JB. Transesophageal echocardiography: past, present and future. In: Freeman WK, Seward JB, Khandheria BK, Tajik AJ, eds. Transesophageal echocardiography. Little brown and company; 1994:1-8.  

-  Side CG, Gosling RG. Non-surgical assessment of cardiac function (Letter to the editor). Nature 1971; 232: 335-336. Quoted from 

-  Souquet J, Hanrath P, Zitelli L, et al. Transesophageal phased array for imaging of the heart. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1982; 29: 707-712. Quoted from  

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