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Back to Thiazide diuretics

Name: Hydrochlorothiazide

Pregnancy Category B

Drug classes

  • Thiazide diuretic

Therapeutic actions

Inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride in distal renal tubule, increasing the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water by the kidney.


Adjunctive therapy in edema associated with CHF, cirrhosis, corticosteroid, and estrogen therapy; renal dysfunction

Hypertension as sole therapy or in combination with other antihypertensives

Unlabeled uses: calcium nephrolithiasis alone or with amiloride or allopurinal to prevent recurrences in hypercalciuric or normal calciuric patients; diabetes insipidus, especially nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; osteoporosis


Contraindicated in the presence of allergy to thiazides, sulfonamides; fluid or electrolyte imbalance; renal disease (risk of azotemia); liver disease (may precipitate hepatic coma); gout (risk of precipitation of attack); SLE; glucose tolerance abnormalities, diabetes mellitus; hyperparathyroidism; manic-depressive disorder (aggravated by hypercalcemia); pregnancy; lactation.

Adverse effects

  • CNS: Dizziness, vertigo, paresthesias, weakness, headache, drowsiness, fatigue, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, neutropenia
  • GI: Nausea, anorexia, vomiting, dry mouth, diarrhea, constipation, jaundice, hepatitis, pancreatitis
  • CV: Orthostatic hypotension, venous thrombosis, volume depletion, cardiac arrhythmias, chest pain
  • GU: Polyuria, nocturia, impotence, loss of libido
  • Dermatologic: Photosensitivity, rash, purpura, exfoliative dermatitis, hives
  • Other: Muscle cramps and muscle spasms, fever, gouty attacks, flushing, weight loss, rhinorrhea

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