Xolair reduced the rate of hospital emergency visits by 44% in patients with inadequately controlled asthma.
Immediate-release capsules, tablets: Bronkodyl, Elixophyllin, Quibron-T,
Dividose, Slo-Phyllin, Theolair
Timed-release capsules: Aerolate, Elixophyllin SR, Slo-bid Gyrocaps,
Slo-Phyllin Gyrocaps, Theo-24, Theobid, Theoclear L.A., Theo-Dur Sprinkle,
Theospan-SR, Theovent Long-Acting
Timed-release tablets: Constant-T, Quibron-T/SR Dividose, Respbid,
Theochron, Theo-Dur, Theolair-SR, Uniphyl
Liquids: Accurbron, Aerolate, Aquaphyllin, Asmalix, Elixomin, Elixophyllin,
Lanophyllin, Slo-Phyllin, Theoclear-80, Theolair, Theostat 80, theophylline
Pregnancy Category C
Mechanism of action
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, causing bronchodilation and increasing vital capacity that has been impaired by bronchospasm and air trapping; actions may be mediated by inhibition of phosphodiesterase, which increases the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate; in concentrations that may be higher than those reached clinically, it also inhibits the release of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis and histamine.
- Symptomatic relief or prevention of bronchial asthma and reversible bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema
- Use of 2 mg/kg per day to maintain serum concentrations between
3 and 5 ?/ml in the treatment of apnea and bradycardia of prematurity
- Hypersensitivity to any xanthines,
- peptic ulcer,
- active gastritis,
- status asthmaticus,
- pregnancy (tachycardia, jitteriness, and withdrawal apnea have been observed in neonates whose mothers received xanthines up until delivery).
Use caution in the presence of
- cardiac arrhythmias
- acute myocardial injury
- cor pulmonale
- severe hypertension
- severe hypoxemia
- renal or hepatic disease
- labor (may inhibit uterine contractions)
- Serum theophylline levels 20-25 ?/ml: nausea, vomiting,
diarrhea, headache, insomnia, irritability (75% of patients)
- Serum theophylline levels 30-35 ?/ml: hyperglycemia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, tachycardia ( 10 ?/ml in premature newborns); seizures, brain damage, death
- CNS: Irritability (especially children); restlessness, dizziness, muscle twitching, convulsions, severe depression, stammering speech; abnormal behavior characterized by withdrawal, mutism andunresponsiveness alternating with hyperactive periods
- GI: Loss of appetite, hematemesis, epigastric pain, gastroesophageal reflux during sleep, increased SGOT
- CV: Palpitations, sinus tachycardia,
ventricular tachycardia, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, circulatory
Respiratory: Tachypnea, respiratory arrest
- GU: Proteinuria, increased excretion of renal tubular cells & RBCs; diuresis (dehydration), urinary retention in men with prostate enlargement
- Other: Fever, flushing, hyperglycemia,
SIADH, rash, elevated SGOT.
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