Submitted by Dr. Hesham Al-Inany, M.D. Lecturer, Gynaecology & Obstetrics dept. Kasr El-Aini hospital, Cairo University, Egypt.
Procedures applied to gametes and embryo in which careful manipulation can be performed with micropipettes undervision via the microscope.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
Is any procedure where the oocyte is manipulated before returning to the body either as oocyte or an embryo (Ng et al, 1990 a).
The term micro-fertilization was first used by Alan Trounsan (1987) to describe introduction of sperm into oocyte. However, the term micro-insemination is more accurate because insemination is the process of adding sperm, while fertilization is the result of sperm union with oocyte (Yanagimachi ,198 8 ).
Subzonal sperm injection (SUZI) (micro-insemination sperm transfer) (MIST)
Sperm are introduced by micro-insemination process either single or multiple into the perivitelline space (PVS) under the zona (Ng et al, 1990 b).
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (I.C.S.I.) (micro-insemination microinjection into cytoplasm) (MIMIC)
New method to inject the sperm into the cytoplasm of the oocyte (Palermo et al, 1992). This method is still in its first stages and needs to be elaborated.
Zona drilling (ZD)
Creating small holes in the ZP by mechanical or local application of a zona solvent like acid or enzymes using microneedle to inject the material (Gordon and Talansky, 1986).
Partial zona dissection (PZD)
The mechanical breaching of the ZP to provide an access through which sperm can more easily gain path to the egg (Cohen et al, 1990).
Opening of the ZP of early cleaved embryo by partial slicing by means of micromanipulation before replacement so as to improve chances of eventual hatching (Cohen et al, 1990).
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