Submitted by Dr. Hesham Al-Inany, M.D. Lecturer, Gynaecology & Obstetrics dept. Kasr El-Aini hospital, Cairo University, Egypt.
Micromanipulation procedures are applied to embryos and gametes in
which careful manipulation can be performed with micropipettes under vision
via the microscope. The first sperm-egg injection experiments were described
by Hiramoto (1962) in the sea urchin , and the first mammalian egg injection
was described by Lin (1966) in the mouse. Uehera and Yanagimachi (1976)
reported the microinjection of human and golden hamster sperm into hamster
egg . Good recent reviews of the subject were given by Markert (1983)
and Kishimoto (1986) who also reviewed sperm microinjection into starfish
eggs (Ng et al, 1989).
The term microfertilization was used by Trounson(1987) but the first human report came from Metka, et al (1985) who injected single sperm into nine human oocytes. The first human pregnancy after micromanipulation has been reported by Ng et al (1988).
Over the last five years , various micromanipulation strategies have been suggested for promoting sperm-egg fusion.
These fall into three basic categories:
(I) The direct injection of single spermatozoon into the ooplasm (ICSI).
(II) The placement of spermatozoa into the perivitilline space (SUZI).
(III) Partial zona pellucida dissection (PZD).
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