The passage of excessively dry or small amounts of stools (<50 ml/day) or infrequent stools (less often than normal).

Patients <50yrs old do not require investigation.

1. Impaired rectal emptying

Stools present in rectum by PR

1. Segmental disturbance in defecation reflex

2. Suprasegmental

  • Poor habits
  • Toilet training
  • Laxative abuse / psychological.

1. Impaired rectal filling

Absent stools in rectum by PR

1. Systemic cause

2. Drugs

3. Slow transit time

 (by exclusion)

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