Eosinophilia

Eosinophilia is the state of having high eosinophil granulocytes in the blood. Normal ranges are between 0 and 0.5 109 per litre of blood. Eosinophilia is presence of more than 450 cells/microL in blood.

The release of interleukin-5 by T cells, mast cells and macrophages stimulates the production of eosinophils.

Diseases that feature eosinophilia: They can be easily be remembered by the famous mnemonic "CHINA".

  • C - Connective tissue diseases
  • H - Helminthic (ie, worm) infections
  • I - Idiopathic HES
  • N - Neoplasia
  • A - Allergies

Connective tissue disease

  • Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (due to tryptophan in the United States in 1989)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Toxic-oil syndrome (due to contaminated rapeseed oil in Spain in 1981)
  • Churg-Strauss vasculitis
  • Coccidioidomycosis fungal infection
  • Eosinophilic fasciitis

Parasitic infestations

  • Ascariasis
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Trichinosis
  • Strongyloidiasis
  • Visceral larva migrans
  • Gnathostomiasis
  • Fascioliasis
  • Paragonimiasis

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Neoplasia

  • Lymphoma (e.g. Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma)
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I)
  • Gastric or lung carcinoma (i.e. paraneoplastic eosinophilia)
  • Eosinophilic leukemia (very rare)

Allergic

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