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April 2011 Briefing - Cardiology

Last Updated: May 02, 2011.

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Cardiology for April 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Height and Obesity May Raise Venous Thromboembolism Risk

FRIDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Tall men may have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE); whereas tall stature and obesity are associated with an increased VTE risk in both men and women, according to a study published online April 28 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Infarct Size Varies According to Time of Day

THURSDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Significant variations in infarct size are associated with circadian oscillations at the time of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) onset, with the largest infarcts occurring during the dark-to-light transition period (6:00 am to noon), according to a study published online April 27 in Heart.

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Obesity in Pregnancy Linked to Fetal and Infant Death

THURSDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Early pregnancy obesity significantly increases the risk of fetal and infant death, independent of risks associated with congenital anomalies and maternal pre-gestational diabetes, according to a study published online April 5 in Human Reproduction.

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Low-Dose Aspirin Affects Post-Surgery Blood Drainage

WEDNESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Patients taking low-dose aspirin have significantly increased blood drainage and are at increased risk of complications after spinal surgery, even if they stop taking aspirin seven days before surgery, according to a study published in the April issue of The Spine Journal.

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Specialist Transfer to Patients With MI Improves Outcome

WEDNESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Transfer of qualified interventionalists to hospitals without interventionalists qualified for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) may be more effective at improving care of patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) than transferring patients to hospitals with qualified interventionalists, particularly where patient transfers could be delayed by congestion, according to a study published online April 26 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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Anti-Inflammatory Drugs May Lower Antidepressant Efficacy

WEDNESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen, appear to reduce the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), according to a study published online April 25 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Oophorectomy May Not Adversely Affect Health

WEDNESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Elective bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) with hysterectomy is associated with a lower risk of ovarian cancer than ovarian conservation and hysterectomy, and BSO does not appear to have adverse effects on cardiovascular health, hip fracture, cancer, or total mortality compared with ovarian conservation and hysterectomy, according to research published in the April 25 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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More MI Treatments Tied to Decreased Mortality in Sweden

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Sweden, an increase in evidence-based treatments is associated with a decrease in 30-day and one-year mortality, according to a study published in the April 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Low Health Literacy Tied to Higher Heart Failure Mortality

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- For outpatients with heart failure, low health literacy is significantly correlated with higher all-cause mortality, according to a study published in the April 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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ACC/AHA Issue Blood Pressure Control Guidelines for Elderly

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have released a consensus document to help clinicians control and reduce the risks for high blood pressure in elderly adults; the document has been published online April 25 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Restricted Diet Lowers Triglycerides in Fatty Liver

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Restricted intake of carbohydrates or calories for two weeks significantly reduces hepatic triglycerides in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to a study published in the May issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Diabetes Patients Benefit From Amlodipine Titration

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- An amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (OM)-based titration regimen is well tolerated and may reduce blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Those With HIV at Higher Risk for Heart Failure

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with HIV may be at higher risk for heart failure, particularly if they have higher levels of ongoing viral replication, according to research published in the April 25 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Mortality Rate in Adults With Hypertension Has Fallen

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The all-cause mortality rate among hypertensive adults has dropped in recent decades, but the mortality gap between adults with and without hypertension has remained constant, according to research published in the April 26 issue of Circulation.

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Tai Chi Benefits Heart Failure Patients

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Tai chi may improve quality of life, exercise self-efficacy, and mood in people with chronic systolic heart failure, according to research published in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Risk Taking Similar in Very Obese, Normal Weight Teens

MONDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- High school students (HSS) with extreme obesity appear to engage in risky behaviors at a rate similar to that of their healthy weight peers, with higher rates of some high-risk behaviors, according to research published online April 25 in Pediatrics.

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Good Diagnostic Value of Prospective ECG Scans

MONDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who undergo dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered protocols have similar scores as those undergoing DSCT retrospective ECG-gated protocols, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Getting Right Amount of Sleep May Help With Weight Loss

MONDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Sleeping between six and eight hours a night and having less stress may predict an individual's success in a behavioral weight loss intervention, according to a study published online March 29 in the International Journal of Obesity.

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Hypertension Drugs Tied to Risk of Cancer Recurrence

MONDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) appear to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer recurrence in women, while beta blockers (BBs) seem to have a protective effect, according to a study published online April 11 in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment.

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Brief, Intense Exercise May Have Cardioprotective Role

FRIDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Brief, intense exercise is a time-efficient alternative to traditional endurance training and reduces the level of various markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adolescents, according to a study published online April 4 in the American Journal of Human Biology.

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Studies Add to Evidence on Clot Risk Tied to Contraceptives

FRIDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Oral contraceptives containing drospirenone appear to be associated with a higher risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism than formulations containing levonorgestrel, according to two studies published online April 21 in BMJ.

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Kidney Disease Common in Very Elderly, Tied to CVD

FRIDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears to be quite prevalent in octogenarians and may be linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD), though different formulas used to assess prevalence provide different results, according to research published online April 21 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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CDC: Half of States Have Smoke-Free Policies

THURSDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Comprehensive smoke-free policies among U.S. states increased dramatically between 2000 and 2010, making the Healthy People 2020 target of all states having comprehensive smoke-free policies achievable with continued efforts and accelerated efforts in the Southern states, according a report in the April 22 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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High BNP Post-CABG Predicts Worse Physical Function

THURSDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Higher peak postoperative levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), secreted by the heart in response to stress, are independently associated with worse physical function up to two years after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, according to a study published in the April issue of Anesthesiology.

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Sedentary Life Tied to Narrow Retinal Arterioles

THURSDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Six-year-olds who spend the most time watching television, using a computer, or playing video games have narrower retinal arteries compared with those who spend more time engaged in physical activities, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Calcium Supplements Modestly Increase Risk of Heart Attack

WEDNESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Use of personal calcium supplements -- with or without vitamin D -- modestly increases the risk of cardiovascular events, especially myocardial infarction (MI), a finding obscured in the Women's Health Initiative Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation Study (WHI CaD Study), according to an article published online April 19 in BMJ.

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Physical Activity Guidelines May Improve Survival

WEDNESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Meeting the recommendations set out in the federal 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in U.S. adults, according to a study published online April 5 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Arterial Obstruction Status Impacts IV Thrombolysis Benefit

WEDNESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The infarct growth attenuating treatment effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is greater in ischemic stroke patients with arterial obstruction, according to a study published online April 7 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Low-Cost Thromboprophylaxis by Electronic Alerts Effective

WEDNESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic alert (e-alert) systems are cost-effective tools for reducing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients, according to a study published online April 11 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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Perioperative MI Common and Usually Asymptomatic

WEDNESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) after noncardiac surgery is the most common major vascular complication, with most patients not experiencing ischemic symptoms, according to a study published in the April 19 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Off-Label Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa High

WEDNESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in the hospital setting greatly exceeds use for approved indications; off-label use does not appear to reduce mortality and may increase the risk for thromboembolism, according to research published in the April 19 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Airway Exam Rare in Infants With Life-Threatening Events

TUESDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Well-appearing infants hospitalized with apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) rarely undergo airway evaluation or require subsequent otolaryngologic surgical intervention, according to research published in the April issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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AHA: Exercise and Dietary Changes Reduce Trigylcerides

TUESDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Dietary and lifestyle changes that include engaging in regular physical activity, losing excess weight, and replacing saturated dietary fats with healthy unsaturated fats can reduce elevated triglycerides, according to an American Heart Association scientific statement published online April 18 in Circulation.

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New Biomarker May Improve Acute Kidney Injury Diagnosis

TUESDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may be a biomarker for detecting early subclinical acute kidney injury (AKI) and its adverse outcomes in absence of diagnostic increases in serum creatinine, according to a study published in the April 26 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Do-Not-Resuscitate Order Linked to Increased Surgical Mortality

MONDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Surgical patients with do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders have more complications and a higher mortality rate than non-DNR patients, according to a study published online April 18 in the Archives of Surgery.

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Injecting Facility Reduces Illicit Drug Use Overdose Deaths

MONDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- A supervised injecting facility (SIF), where drug users can inject pre-obtained illicit drugs, appears to reduce overdose mortality, according to a study published online April 18 in The Lancet.

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Insulin Resistance Linked to Increased Preeclampsia Risk

MONDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Mid-trimester maternal insulin resistance is associated with subsequent preeclampsia, according to a study published in the April issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Left Atrial Distensibility Predicts Heart Attack Outcomes

MONDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- The distensibility of the heart's left atrium (LA) can identify patients with elevated left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and it is a predictor of in-hospital mortality, according to a study published in the April 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Stroke Outcomes Similar in Children and Young Adults

FRIDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Children and young adults who experience acute ischemic stroke tend to have similar stroke severity and clinical outcomes, even though they have different etiology and risk factors, according to a study published online March 21 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Geneva Score Prognostic in Patients Ruled Out for PE

FRIDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Assessment of clinical probability with a revised Geneva score (RGS) could help predict prognosis in patients for whom pulmonary embolism (PE) has been ruled out, according to research published in the April issue of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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Statins May Lower Post-Surgery Renal Complications

FRIDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who use statins before major elective surgery may have a decreased likelihood of post-surgery renal complications and reduced postoperative mortality, according to a study published online April 14 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Neighborhood Social Cohesion May Reduce Stroke Mortality

FRIDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Social cohesion at the neighborhood level is associated with a protective effect against stroke mortality, especially for whites, according to a study published online April 14 in Stroke.

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Donor-Specific Antibodies May Increase Arteriosclerosis

FRIDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Arteriosclerosis progression occurs in renal allograft recipients with and without donor-specific antibodies (DSA), and it is significantly increased in patients with DSA, according to a study published online April 14 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Less Fast Food Eaten After Acute Myocardial Infarction

THURSDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) significantly reduce the amount of fast food they consume six months after AMI, but certain populations still eat fast food on a weekly basis, according to a study published in the April 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Hookah Use Widespread Among College Students

THURSDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking waterpipe tobacco, or hookah, is an increasingly popular activity among U.S. college students, and tends to be falsely perceived as being safer than cigarette smoking, according to a study published online Feb. 25 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

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Anesthesia Complications Twice As Likely in Obese

THURSDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Airway management is a basic anesthetic responsibility and skill, and strategies need to be implemented to appropriately manage difficult airways, according to the Fourth National Audit Project (NAP4) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society, published online March 29 in the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

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Atrophy in AD-Related Areas Tied to Disease Development

THURSDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have found a correlation between atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain areas and subsequent AD, which also appears to be influenced by vascular risk factors (VRF), according to two articles published online April 13 in Neurology.

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New RX for Large Brain Aneurysm

WEDNESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- A new option to repair a large aneurysm in the brain has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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More Than Half of U.S. Adults Take Dietary Supplements

WEDNESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- Adult U.S. dietary supplement intake has increased since 1988-1994, according to a National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) data brief published April 13 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Glucose Variability Has No Cardio Protective Role

TUESDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Reduction in intraday glucose variability (GV) in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes does not affect subsequent secondary cardiovascular events, according to a study published in the April issue of Diabetes Care.

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Wrist Circumference Associated With Insulin Resistance

TUESDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Measurement of wrist circumference in obese adolescents may be a better indicator of insulin resistance than standard deviation score body mass index (BMI), according to a study published online April 11 in Circulation.

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Substantial Weight Loss With Phentermine and Topiramate

TUESDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight and obese individuals treated with phentermine and topiramate achieve substantial dose-related weight loss, according to a study published online April 11 in The Lancet.

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Negative Health Behaviors Identified in Young Parents

MONDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Parents of young children have lower physical activity levels compared to young adults of the same age without children, and mothers have poorer dietary intake and higher body mass index (BMI) compared to women without children, according to a study published online April 11 in Pediatrics.

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Imatinib Reduces Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis Symptoms

MONDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Imatinib mesylate is well tolerated by patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) with improvement in skin thickening and forced vital capacity (FVC), according to a study published online March 11 in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

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Bipolar Sealer Not Preferable to Electrocautery in Arthroplasty

FRIDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a bipolar sealer to achieve hemostasis during uncomplicated primary total hip arthroplasty does not appear to have any advantages over standard electrocautery, according to research published in the March 16 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Erectile Dysfunction Tied to Cardiovascular Death Risk

FRIDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of mortality due to cardiovascular causes increases in men with erectile dysfunction (ED); however, in the first five years after ED manifestation, there is a higher proportion of deaths due to oncological causes, according to a study published online March 22 in The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

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Insulin Secretagogues May Increase Mortality Risk

FRIDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin secretagogue (IS) monotherapy are at increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and composite (myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, and cardiovascular) mortality compared to those treated with metformin, according to a study published online April 6 in the European Heart Journal.

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Independent Circadian Blood Pressure Rhythm Identified

FRIDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- The human body has an independent circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP), which peaks around 9 p.m., according to a study published online April 7 in the Circulation Research.

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Virtual Reality Improves Stroke Patients' Motor Skills

FRIDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Virtual reality (VR) technology can assist in arm motor recovery after stroke, according to a meta-analysis published online April 7 in Stroke.

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'Global Trigger Tool' Identifies 10 Times More Errors

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the new Global Trigger Tool, developed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, detects at least 10 times more adverse events than other methods currently in use, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Self-Management of Anticoagulant Therapy Effective

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Patient self-testing (PST), alone or in combination with patient self-management (PSM) of anticoagulant doses, reduces thromboembolic complications and all-cause mortality without increasing major bleeding events, according to a meta-analysis published in the April 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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New Yellow Fever Vaccine Safe and Effective

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine against yellow fever that contains inactivated yellow fever antigen shows promise as a safe alternative to live vaccine, according to research published in the April 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Adolescent BMI May Predict Later Obesity-Related Disease

WEDNESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- An elevated body mass index (BMI) at age 17, even one within what is considered normal, may be predictive of coronary heart disease in adulthood, according to research published in the April 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Device Approved to Treat Brain Aneurysm

WEDNESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- A new device to treat brain aneurysm has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Reduced Mortality in Very Elderly Heart Failure Patients

WEDNESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- In the last decade, mortality for elderly heart failure patients has improved, but readmission to the hospital still occurs frequently, according to a study published online April 5 in Circulation: Heart Failure.

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Non-Communicable Diseases Present a Global Health Crisis

WEDNESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- The global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, and a global movement is needed to tackle them, according to a report published online April 6 in The Lancet.

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Alteration in Health Outcomes Post Estrogen Therapy

TUESDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Among postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy, cessation of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) therapy reduces the risk of stroke, and the risk of breast cancer remains reduced, according to a study to be published on April 6 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Sudden Death Among Athletes Higher Than Formerly Reported

TUESDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes is higher than previous estimates suggest, with a rate of one in 43,770 athletes suffering SCD, according to a study published online April 4 in Circulation.

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Working Long Hours May Predict Risk of Heart Disease

TUESDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Working long hours may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and information on working hours can improve CHD prediction in a low-risk, employed population, according to a study published in the April 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Effects of Statin Therapy Independent of KIF6 Genotype

FRIDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Statin therapy significantly reduces the incidence of coronary and other major vascular events irrespective of the KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) genotype, according to a study published online March 30 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Autoimmune Diseases Number Two Cause of Chronic Illness

FRIDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Autoimmune diseases are the second leading cause of chronic illness in the United States and constitute a major direct and indirect economic burden to the U.S. health care system, according to a report released by the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA) on March 22 at a congressional briefing.

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Lower Exercise Tolerance in Patients With Turner Syndrome

FRIDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Women with Turner syndrome (TS) have lower maximal aerobic capacity and lower exercise tolerance than controls, according to a study published in the April 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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