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Category: Pulmonology | Monthly Briefing

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May 2011 Briefing - Pulmonology

Last Updated: June 01, 2011.

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for May 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Operative Time of Day Not Tied to Transplant Survival

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- The operative time of day does not significantly affect one-year survival of thoracic transplant recipients, according to a study published in the June 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Effect Estimates May Be Inflated in Biomarker Studies

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Biomarker effects are often overestimated in highly cited studies compared to the effects reported in subsequent meta-analyses of the same associations, according to a review published in the June 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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PDE4 Inhibitors Improve Some COPD-Related Symptoms

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors improve lung function and reduce the likelihood of exacerbations with little impact on quality of life or symptoms, according to a study published online May 11 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

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Education Increases Support for Family-Witnessed CPR

TUESDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Presentation of an evidence-based family-witnessed resuscitation (FWR) education program to cardiopulmonary resuscitation providers may modify their opinions and increase their support for FWR, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of Emergency Nursing.

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Pediatric Medical Emergencies Increase in the U.K.

THURSDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- The number of children presenting to emergency departments in the United Kingdom increased between 1997 and 2007 to 2008, although the majority of medical conditions presented remain the same, according to a study published online May 23 in the Emergency Medicine Journal.

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Frequent Bronchoconstriction Tied to Airway Remodeling

THURSDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Experimentally induced bronchoconstriction may promote airway remodeling in patients with asthma, according to a study published in the May 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Bacterial Meningitis Rates Have Decreased in the United States

WEDNESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of bacterial meningitis in the United States has decreased since 1998, but there has been no change in the fatality rate, according to a study published in the May 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Contact With Drug Industry Linked to Positive Attitudes

WEDNESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- The extent of contact that medical students have with the pharmaceutical industry is associated with positive attitudes about marketing, according to a review published online May 24 in PLoS Medicine.

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Inhaled Anticholinergics Tied to Acute Urinary Retention

TUESDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- Men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using both short- and long-acting inhaled anticholinergic (IAC) drugs have an increased risk of developing acute urinary retention (AUR), according to a study published in the May 23 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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End-of-Life Cancer Care Differs in the U.S. and Canada

MONDAY, May 23 (HealthDay News) -- End-of-life care for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) differs in the United States and Ontario, Canada, according to a study published online May 18 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Higher Lung Cancer Incidence in Heart Transplant Patients

MONDAY, May 23 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of lung cancer among heart transplantation (HT) patients may be higher than in the general population, and this increase is not associated with an increased prevalence of smokers among HT patients, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Severe Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Pneumonia Deaths

MONDAY, May 23 (HealthDay News) -- In hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia, severe vitamin D deficiency, but not antimicrobial peptide levels, is associated with increased 30-day mortality, according to a study published in the May issue of Respirology.

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Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Common in Asthma

MONDAY, May 23 (HealthDay News) -- Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing appears to be relatively common among children with asthma, according to two studies published online May 23 in Pediatrics.

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Many Medical Students Lack Confidence in Medical Law

FRIDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of medical students lack confidence in their knowledge and skills across many areas of medical law, according to a study published online May 16 in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

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Family Cancer Histories Are Not Highly Accurate

WEDNESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- General population reports on family history for major adult cancers are not very accurate, according to a study published online May 11 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Physician Advice May Improve Teen Smoking Behavior

TUESDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians' tobacco-related interactions with adolescents, including screening and advice, may help to modify teen attitudes, smoking intentions, and quitting behaviors, according to a study published online May 16 in Pediatrics.

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Tele-ICU Tied to Lower Mortality, Shorter Hospital Stay

TUESDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of a tele-intensive care unit (ICU) intervention is correlated with reduced mortality risk, length of hospital stay, preventable complications rates, and improvements in best practice adherence, according to a study published online May 16 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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ASIR Produces Acceptable CT Images at Low Radiation Dose

MONDAY, May 16 (HealthDay News) -- Acceptable quality chest computed tomography (CT) images without artifacts that may affect diagnostic confidence can be achieved at 40 mAs using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), according to a study published in the May issue of Radiology.

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Pirfenidone May Slow Lung Decline in Patients With IPF

MONDAY, May 16 (HealthDay News) -- Use of pirfenidone may reduce the deterioration in lung function seen in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), according to a study published online May 14 in The Lancet.

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Childhood Eczema, Rhinitis Predict Adult Asthma

FRIDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- Children who have eczema and rhinitis may be more susceptible to atopic asthma in adulthood, according to research published online April 4 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

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Researchers Study Stem Cells in Human Lungs

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have found evidence of identifiable human lung stem cells, which appear capable of self-renewal and may have potential for restoring tissue in damaged lungs; their findings have been published in the May 12 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Neonatal Vitamin D Deficiency Tied to Respiratory Disease

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy neonates with vitamin D deficiency are at a higher risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first year of life, according to a study published online May 9 in Pediatrics.

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Medical Education Participants Recognize Funding Bias

WEDNESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Although most medical professionals believe that commercial funding of continuing medical education (CME) introduces bias, most are not willing to pay higher fees to offset or eliminate such funding sources, according to a study published in the May 9 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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CT Pulmonary Angiography Tied to Embolism Overdiagnosis

TUESDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is associated with overdiagnosis reflected by increasing incidence, limited change in mortality, and reduced case fatality, according to a study published in the May 9 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Adding Omalizumab May Improve Uncontrolled Asthma

FRIDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Omalizumab appears to provide additional clinical benefits in patients with severe allergic asthma that is inadequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta2-agonists (LABAs), according to a study published in the May 3 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Ultrasound Viable Option to Radiography in Acute Dyspnea

FRIDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- For most pulmonary diseases causing dyspnea, ultrasonography and radiography demonstrate high concordance, but ultrasound is more accurate at identifying free pleural effusion, according to a study published in the May issue of Chest.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Better After Adenotonsillectomy

THURSDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- In children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleep-disordered breathing improves after adenotonsillectomy possibly due to decreases in the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, according to a study published in the May issue of Chest.

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Leukotriene-Receptor Antagonists Effective in Asthma

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a leukotriene-receptor antagonist (LTRA) may be as effective as an inhaled glucocorticoid as first-line controller therapy, and as effective as a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) as an add-on therapy, for the treatment of asthma patients, according to the findings of two pragmatic trials published in the May 5 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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β-Agonist Treatment of COPD May Reduce Mortality

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) initially treated by long-acting inhaled β-agonists may have lower mortality than those initially treated by long-acting anticholinergics, according to a study published in the May 3 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Race, Ethnicity May Influence ICU End-of-Life Care

WEDNESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Racial and ethnic differences that are independent of socioeconomic status may be present in end-of-life care in intensive care units (ICU), according to a study published in the May issue of Chest.

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CDC: Asthma Prevalence on the Rise in United States

TUESDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of asthma among both adults and children has increased in the last decade, and asthma costs have increased in recent years as well, according to a report in the May 3 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Efficacy of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Unclear

TUESDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- Though stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is currently used as a treatment for various solid malignant tumors, there is a lack of evidence confirming its effectiveness and safety, according to a review published online May 2 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Incidence Increasing in U.K.

MONDAY, May 2 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis clinical syndrome (IPF-CS) in primary care and mortality from IPF-CS measured by registered deaths in the United Kingdom have increased significantly in the 21st century, according to a study published online April 27 in Thorax.

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