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January 2017 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: February 01, 2017.

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for January 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Higher in HIV-Infected Adults

TUESDAY, Jan. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-infected adults have diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence of 10.3 percent, which is higher than general population adults, according to a study published in the January issue of BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.

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Azithromycin Given in Labor Cuts Maternal, Neonatal Infections

TUESDAY, Jan. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Administration of azithromycin during labor is associated with a reduction in maternal and neonatal clinical infections, according to a study published online Jan. 27 in Pediatrics.

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Antibiotics, Not Poor Hygiene, Main Cause of C. difficile Outbreak

FRIDAY, Jan. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Reducing the use of fluoroquinolones has curbed an outbreak of Clostridium difficile that began in 2006 in England, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Risk of Diabetes Down With HCV SVR in HIV/HCV Coinfection

FRIDAY, Jan. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), eradication of HCV is associated with a reduction in the risk of diabetes mellitus, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in Hepatology.

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Strategies Presented for Addressing Uncompensated Time

THURSDAY, Jan. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Strategies can be employed to help physicians deal with the increasing burden of uncompensated tasks, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Bezlotoxumab Promising Against Recurrent Clostridium difficile

THURSDAY, Jan. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) is effective in reducing the risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, according to research published in the Jan. 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Most PCPs Oppose Complete Repeal of the Affordable Care Act

THURSDAY, Jan. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A majority of primary care doctors oppose full repeal of the Affordable Care Act, according to a perspective piece published online Jan. 25 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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ACA Has Increased Coverage, Access for Chronically Ill Patients

TUESDAY, Jan. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Millions of Americans with a chronic illness gained health insurance coverage after the Affordable Care Act went into effect in 2010, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Catheter Safeguards at Hospitals Cut Bloodstream Infection Rates

TUESDAY, Jan. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Improved catheter safety measures in hospitals significantly reduce bloodstream infections and health care costs, according to a review published recently in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Blood Test May Predict Survival for Patients With Ebola

MONDAY, Jan. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A blood test may help determine a patient's chance of surviving Ebola infection, according to a study published online Jan. 19 in Genome Biology.

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Anti-Müllerian Hormone Predicts Menopause in Women With HIV

MONDAY, Jan. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For HIV-infected women, anti-müllerian hormone is associated with age of menopause onset, according to a study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Too Few Patients With Severe Mental Illness Get HIV Test

FRIDAY, Jan. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with severe mental illness are only slightly more likely to be screened for HIV than those in the general population, according to a study published online Jan. 17 in Psychiatric Services.

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Obesity Underrepresented in Medical Licensing Exams

FRIDAY, Jan. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The most important concepts of obesity prevention and treatment are not adequately represented on the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step examinations, according to a study published recently in Teaching and Learning in Medicine.

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Early Study Results Promising for Genital Herpes Vaccine

FRIDAY, Jan. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine for herpes simplex virus type 2 could be nearing human clinical trials, according to research published online Jan. 19 in PLOS Pathogens.

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SOFA Score Predicts In-Hospital Mortality for Adults in ICU

FRIDAY, Jan. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with an infection-related primary admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), a change of 2 or more points in the Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score offers greater discrimination for in-hospital mortality than systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria or the quick SOFA (qSOFA) score, according to a study published online Jan. 17 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Genital HPV Prevalence Rate High Among Men in the United States

THURSDAY, Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of American men may be infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination coverage is low among vaccine-eligible men, according to a study published online Jan. 19 in JAMA Oncology.

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Effectiveness of One-Dose MenACWY-D Drops Over Time

THURSDAY, Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents, the effectiveness of the one-dose meningococcal (groups A, C, W, and Y) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) decreases at three to less than eight years post-vaccination, according to a study published online Jan. 18 in Pediatrics.

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Sepsis Guidelines Improve Patient Care in ER

THURSDAY, Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of sepsis guidelines improves early assessment, recognition, and management of patients presenting to an emergency department with sepsis, according to a study published online Jan. 10 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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Quick SOFA Score Predicts In-Hospital Mortality Risk

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with suspected infection presenting to the emergency department, the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score is better than systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or severe sepsis criteria for identifying patients at high risk of mortality, according to a study published in the Jan. 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Syphilis Risk May Be Higher in HIV Patients on Antiretrovirals

TUESDAY, Jan. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Men who have sex with men (MSM) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV infection may be at increased risk for syphilis, according to research published online Jan. 16 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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Physician Excess Charges Create Financial Burden for Patients

TUESDAY, Jan. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many doctors bill their private-paying patients two, three, even six times more than what Medicare pays for the same services, according to a research letter published in the Jan. 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria More Problematic Than Thought

TUESDAY, Jan. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is more widespread in U.S. hospitals than previously thought and needs to be more closely monitored, according to a study published online Jan. 16 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Risk of Post-Op Infections Up in Overweight, Obese Children

MONDAY, Jan. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight and obese children seem to be more likely than others to develop postoperative surgical site infections, according to a study published recently in Surgical Infections.

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Fecal Transplant No Better Than Oral Antibiotic for C. difficile

FRIDAY, Jan. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A single fecal transplant delivered by enema is apparently no more effective than oral antibiotics in treating recurring cases of Clostridium difficile infection, according to research published recently in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Pace of Influenza Activity Picking Up Across the United States

FRIDAY, Jan. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The pace of flu activity continues to quicken across the United States, and probably hasn't peaked yet, according to an assessment by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Tapeworm From Asian Waters Identified in Alaskan Salmon

FRIDAY, Jan. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A tapeworm known to infect salmon from the Asian Pacific is also present in fish from U.S. waters, according to research published in the February issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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First U.S. Case of Locally Acquired Zika Described

THURSDAY, Jan. 12, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In a case study from the University of Miami, and published online Jan. 11 in the New England Journal of Medicine, doctors provide new insight into the Zika virus, showing fetal exposure doesn't necessarily mean infection.

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Excessive FDA Regulation Driving High Drug Prices

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The excessive regulatory regime at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an important driver of high drug prices, and should be curbed to introduce more competition and lower prices, according to a report published online Jan. 5 by the National Center for Policy Analysis.

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Enteroviruses May Be Linked to Autoimmunity Leading to T1DM

TUESDAY, Jan. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Enteroviruses may play a role in the development of at least some cases of type 1 diabetes, according to a study published online Jan. 9 in Diabetologia.

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Decline in MRSA Infection Rates in Veterans Affairs Facilities

TUESDAY, Jan. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates decreased through September 2015 in Veterans Affairs facilities, according to a study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Sorafenib Effect on HCC Survival Depends on Hepatitis Status

FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with advanced unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, the effect of sorafenib on overall survival (OS) is dependent on patients' hepatitis status, according to a meta-analysis published online Jan. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Acid Suppression Rx Linked to Risk of C. difficile, Campylobacter

FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) users may be at higher risk of infection with Clostridium difficile and Campylobacter bacteria, according to a study published online Jan. 5 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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Diabetes Linked to Increased Incidence of Conjunctivitis

FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Diabetes is associated with increased incidence of conjunctivitis, according to a study published online Dec. 29 in Diabetes Care.

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Non-Liver-Related Critical Events Down With SVR in HCV+Cirrhosis

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and biopsy-proven cirrhosis, sustained viral response (SVR) is associated with a reduction in critical events, both liver and non-liver related, according to research published in the January issue of Gastroenterology.

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Major Zika Outbreak Considered Unlikely in the United States

TUESDAY, Jan. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus is not likely to gain a foothold in the United States as it did in Brazil and other Latin American countries, according to a report published in the Jan. 3 issue of the Journal of Medical Entomology.

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