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February 2017 Briefing - Pediatrics

Last Updated: March 01, 2017.

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for February 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Strategies Suggested to Protect Practices From Hackers

TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Steps should be taken to protect medical practices, including small practices, from hackers, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Task Force Recommends Vision Screening in Children 3 to 5

TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Young children should be screened at least once for amblyopia before they turn 5 years old, according to a draft recommendation statement issued by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).

Evidence Review
Draft Recommendation Statement
Comment on Recommendation

Access to Primary Care Not Affected by Medicaid Expansion

TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors' offices capably shouldered the burden of millions of new Medicaid patients gaining access to health insurance through the Affordable Care Act, according to a research letter published online Feb. 27 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Care Update for Newborns With Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid

TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In a Committee Opinion published in the March issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology, guidelines are updated for the management of delivery of newborns with meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

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Physician Burnout Eroding Sense of Calling

TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For physicians across specialties, burnout is associated with reduced odds of a sense of calling, according to a study published online Feb. 8 in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Supreme Court Rules Patient Safety Data Subject to Litigation

MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Supreme Court of Florida has reversed a District Court of Appeal decision deeming information related to patient safety unprotected from litigation discovery, according to a report published from the American Medical Association.

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Sugar-Sweetened Drink Tax Tied to Sustained Drop in Purchase

MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with a sustained reduction in purchases of taxed beverages, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in Health Affairs.

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AAP Offers Guidance for Treating Victims of Sexual Assault

MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians should be comfortable with treating and screening for sexual assault, and they should know where to send their teenage patients for any additional help, according to a clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online Feb. 27 in Pediatrics.

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AAP Addresses Rising Risks to Youth From New Marijuana Laws

MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In a clinical report published online Feb. 27 in Pediatrics, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) offers guidance to pediatricians regarding the increased dangers faced by children and teens since the legalization of marijuana in many states.

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Inhaled Corticosteroids Not Linked to Pneumonia in Children

MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) do not appear to be associated with the risk of pneumonia in children with asthma, according to a review published online Feb. 24 in Pediatrics.

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Retinal OCT Measures Tied to Intracranial Pressure in Children

MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Peripapillary retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures are associated with intracranial pressure in children, according to a study published online Feb. 23 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Rates of Resistant Infections Up in U.S. Children

FRIDAY, Feb. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacterial infections have increased 700 percent in American children since 2007, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

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$20 Million Awarded for Quality Payment Program Training

FRIDAY, Feb. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- About $20 million has been awarded to 11 organizations for the first of a five-year program to provide training and education about the Quality Payment Program for clinicians in individual or small group practices, with up to $80 million to be invested over the remaining four years, according to the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).

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Burnout Is Prevalent Among Pediatric Residents

FRIDAY, Feb. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Burnout is prevalent among pediatric residents and is associated with suboptimal patient care attitudes and behaviors, according to research published online Feb. 23 in Pediatrics.

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Cyberattacks Remain Serious Threat to Health Providers

THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cyberattacks remain a serious threat to small providers as well as big institutions, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Gestational Weight Gain Linked to Psychosis Risk in Children

THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Gaining too little weight during pregnancy may increase the odds that offspring will develop schizophrenia later in life, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Pediatric ACL Injuries Continue to Rise, Especially Among Girls

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears has steadily increased among 6- to 18-year-olds in the United States, rising more than 2 percent a year over the last two decades, according to a report published online Feb. 22 in Pediatrics.

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Health Information Theft a Pressing Concern for U.S. Patients

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Forty-four percent of U.S. adults are worried about having their personal health care information stolen, according to findings from the Xerox eHealth Survey published Feb. 9 in HIT Consultant.

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Survival 79 Percent for Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Survival is 79 percent for neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) undergoing surgical repair, with higher survival for those not needing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), according to a study published online Feb. 17 in Pediatric Anesthesia.

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One in Four Ocular ER Visits for Nonurgent Conditions

TUESDAY, Feb. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly one-quarter of enrollees in a U.S. managed care network who visit the emergency department for an ocular condition have a nonurgent condition, according to a study published online Feb. 1 in Ophthalmology.

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HIV-1 Variants Are Specific for Transmission Route

TUESDAY, Feb. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Specific HIV-1 variants are selected depending on the transmission route, according to a study published online Jan. 26 in Retrovirology.

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CMS Rule Set to Stabilize Small Health Insurance Markets

TUESDAY, Feb. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has proposed a rule in relation to new reforms intended to stabilize individual and small group health insurance markets for 2018.

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AAP Policy Statement Focuses on Child Witness Well-Being

TUESDAY, Feb. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In two policy statements published online Feb. 20 in Pediatrics, guidance is provided for safeguarding the well-being of child witnesses, and recommendations are given for pediatricians relating to expert testimony.

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OD Risk Up in Children Whose Mothers Are Prescribed Opioids

MONDAY, Feb. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A child's risk of a potentially fatal drug overdose more than doubles if a parent is prescribed an opioid, and appropriate storage guidelines are often not followed, according to research published online Feb. 20 in Pediatrics.

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Excess BMI Ups Risk of T1DM in Autoantibody-Positive Relatives

MONDAY, Feb. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes, elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of progression to type 1 diabetes, especially for those aged younger than 12 years, according to a study published online Feb. 15 in Diabetes Care.

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CDC: Influenza Vaccine 48 Percent Effective Overall

FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- This year's influenza vaccine is a fairly good match for the circulating viruses, according to research published in the Feb. 17 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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D.C. Zika Tests Were Flawed

FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Two women in Washington, D.C., were incorrectly found to be negative for Zika virus last year due to flawed testing, health officials said Thursday.

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Antibiotics Could Be Alternative to Surgery for Appendicitis

FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Avoiding surgery and treating appendicitis with antibiotics alone may be a safe approach for many children, according to a review published online Feb. 17 in Pediatrics.

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Gluten-Free Diet Linked to Increased Levels of Toxic Metals

FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Higher levels of arsenic and mercury have been identified in individuals consuming gluten-free diets, according to a study published online Feb. 3 in Epidemiology.

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Health Care Spending Expected to Grow 5.6% Annually to 2025

THURSDAY, Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Health care spending is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 5.6 percent from 2016 to 2025, according to a report published online Feb. 15 in Health Affairs.

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Delayed Development ID'd in Five Brain Regions of ADHD Patients

THURSDAY, Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with the delayed development of five brain regions and should be considered a brain disorder, according to a study published online Feb. 15 in The Lancet Psychiatry.

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Vitamin D May Help Reduce Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection

THURSDAY, Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's preliminary evidence that adequate amounts of vitamin D might help lower rates of acute respiratory infections, according to a review published online Feb. 15 in The BMJ.

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Survival Improving for Periviable Infants

THURSDAY, Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Infants born between 22 and 24 weeks of pregnancy are more likely to survive now than a decade ago, according to a study published in the Feb. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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MRI Can Identify Early Signs of ASD in High-Risk Infants

THURSDAY, Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate size, surface area, and thickness of the cerebral cortex as an infant reaches the 6-month and 12-month marks, it may be possible to predict autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk with 90 percent accuracy, according to research published online Feb. 15 in Nature.

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Uric Acid Concentration, Fructose Intake Up NASH in Children

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Among children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), serum uric acid concentrations and fructose consumption are associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), according to a study published online Feb. 14 in the Journal of Hepatology.

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Medicare Shared Savings Linked to Lower Post-Acute Spending

TUESDAY, Feb. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Participation in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) is associated with an overall reduction in post-acute spending, and the performance of Oregon's Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) model is similar to that of Colorado, according to two studies published online Feb. 13 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

AAP Provides Guidance on Anaphylaxis Emergency Plans

MONDAY, Feb. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- All caregivers for children at risk of anaphylaxis should have a written action plan and epinephrine auto-injectors readily available, according to two clinical reports from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online Feb. 13 in the Pediatrics.

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NICU Auditory Environment Shows Room for Improvement

FRIDAY, Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are exposed to potentially harmful noise levels, according to a study published online Feb. 8 in the Journal of Pediatrics.

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Concussion May Affect Driving Even After Symptoms Are Gone

FRIDAY, Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Even after their symptoms disappear, concussion patients may still have difficulty driving, according to research published online Jan. 24 in the Journal of Neurotrauma.

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Ambient Air Pollution May Raise T2DM Risk in Hispanic Children

FRIDAY, Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of air pollution may increase some Hispanic children's risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Jan. 30 in Diabetes.

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Variation in Complication Rates for Term Newborns in Florida

FRIDAY, Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in hospital total unexpected complication rates among newborns in Florida, according to a study published online Feb. 10 in Pediatrics.

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FDA Approves Emflaza for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

FRIDAY, Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Emflaza (deflazacort) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in patients 5 years and older, the agency said Thursday in a news release.

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Adherence to Bronchiolitis Guidelines Cuts LOS, Costs

THURSDAY, Feb. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adherence to bronchiolitis clinical pathway recommendations is associated with reduced length of stay (LOS) and costs, according to a study published online Feb. 9 in Pediatrics.

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Evaluation of Sepsis Varies Across Newborn Nurseries

THURSDAY, Feb. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Considerable variation is seen in risk assessment for newborn early onset sepsis (EOS), according to a study published online Feb. 8 in Pediatrics.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

AAP: Improvement Needed in Adolescent Vaccination Rates

TUESDAY, Feb. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent rates of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza are well below the target of 80 percent or higher, according to two American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) reports published online Feb. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Clinical Report 2

Fewer Toxic Chemicals Seen for E-Cigarette Use Versus Tobacco

TUESDAY, Feb. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Smokers who switch to electronic cigarettes can substantially reduce their intake of toxic chemicals and carcinogens -- but only if they completely quit smoking tobacco, according to a study published online Feb. 7 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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FDA Approves Newborn Screening Tests for Metabolic Disorders

MONDAY, Feb. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A set of screening tests designed to detect four rare metabolic disorders in newborns has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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'Dripping' Becoming Popular With Teen E-Cigarette Users

MONDAY, Feb. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- One-quarter of U.S. teen electronic cigarette users have experimented with "dripping" -- a new vaping method that produces thicker clouds of vapor, according to a study published online Feb. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Pose a Poisoning Risk to Children

MONDAY, Feb. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The flea medications and heartworm pills that millions of Americans give to their pets pose poisoning risks to any children in the home, according to research published online Feb. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Clinical Practice Guidelines Developed for Pediatric Obesity

MONDAY, Feb. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In a clinical practice guideline published online Jan. 31 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, recommendations are presented for the assessment, treatment, and prevention of pediatric obesity.

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Variation in Prescribing Practices for Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis

MONDAY, Feb. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Prescribing practices vary among U.S. and Canadian physicians treating severe childhood atopic dermatitis (AD), according to a study published in the February issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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2000 to 2014 Saw Increase in Vitamin D Deficiency in Children

FRIDAY, Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- From 2000 to 2014 there was an increase in the rate of vitamin D deficiency diagnosis among children, according to a study published online Feb. 3 in Pediatrics.

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More Children Suffering Ocular Burns From Detergent Pods

FRIDAY, Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Young children are suffering vision-threatening burns from the chemicals inside liquid laundry detergent pods in increasing numbers, according to a research letter published online Feb. 2 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Comorbidities Up Resource Use in Pediatric Spinal Fusion

FRIDAY, Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For children with medical complexity undergoing spinal fusion, chronic respiratory insufficiency, bladder dysfunction, and epilepsy are significantly associated with hospital resource use, according to a study published online Feb. 2 in Pediatrics.

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Transverse Myelitis ID'd As Manifestation of Celiac Dx in Child

THURSDAY, Feb. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Transverse myelitis (TM) can be a manifestation of celiac disease (CD) in young children, according to a case report published online Feb. 2 in Pediatrics.

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PTSD Risk Up in Parents of Kids With Critical Heart Defects

THURSDAY, Feb. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Parents of children born with critical congenital heart defects may be at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems, according to research published online Feb. 1 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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