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August 2017 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: September 01, 2017.

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for August 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

CDC: 60 Percent of America's Single Men Report Using Condoms

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- About six in 10 sexually active single men in the United States are taking responsibility for birth control, according to an August data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.

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Minimal Evidence for Electronic Communication Guidelines

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Minimal evidence is available for guidelines for electronic communication between patients and providers, according to research published online Aug. 28 in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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FDA Approves Pediatric Treatment for Chagas Disease

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Benznidazole has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat the tropical parasitic infection Chagas disease, in children aged 2 to 12.

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More Evidence Links Epstein-Barr Virus to MS Risk

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus may up the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS), and the link isn't limited to whites, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in Neurology.

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Proactive Approach Encouraged for Online Patient Reviews

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Most patients are using online reviews as a first step to finding a new doctor, with 65 percent forming an opinion from reading one to six reviews, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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FDA Approves Vabomere for Complicated UTIs

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The intravenous antibiotic Vabomere (meropenem and vaborbactam) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat certain complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis.

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Insurer Aetna's Envelopes Revealed Customers' HIV Status

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Customers of health insurance giant Aetna in many states were sent mail with envelopes that clearly revealed their HIV status, say the Legal Action Center and AIDS Law Project of Pennsylvania.

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AAP: Hep B Vaccine to Be Given Within First 24 Hours of Life

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine should be given within the first 24 hours of life, according to an American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement published online Aug. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Low Rate of Recurrence Seen for Serious Reactions to Vaccines

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Severe vaccine reactions recur rarely, if ever, when a child receives the same vaccine again, or one with similar ingredients, according to a review published online Aug. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Community Consumption Comprises Most Antibacterial Use

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Community antibacterial consumption comprises about 85 to 95 percent of total antibacterial consumption, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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ART Era Has Changed Secondary Cancers After Kaposi Sarcoma

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a significant decline in the risk of secondary cancers after Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in the era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to a study published online Aug. 24 in JAMA Oncology.

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CDC: More U.S. Teens Starting HPV Vaccination

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Six out of 10 U.S. teens ages 13 to 17 received one or more doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in 2016, but many are still not completing the vaccination series, according to research published in the Aug. 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Estimated 319,400 Deaths From Rheumatic Heart Disease in 2015

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In 2015 there were an estimated 319,400 deaths due to rheumatic heart disease, with a reduction in global age-standardized mortality from 1990, according to a study published in the Aug. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Nurse-, System-Related Factors Analyzed in Wrong-Patient Events

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Greater focus is needed on correct identification processes in order to prevent wrong-patient medication administration incidents, and system supports for nurses are critical, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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Oral Corticosteroids No Benefit for LRI in Non-Asthmatic Adults

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For adults without asthma, with acute cough and at least one lower respiratory tract symptom, prednisolone does not reduce cough duration or severity, according to a study published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Zika Thrives in Pregnancy Due to Vulnerable Immune System

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus thrives in pregnant women by suppressing their already dampened immune systems and running roughshod over their body's natural defenses, which allows the virus to directly attack the fetus, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in Nature Microbiology.

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Maraviroc-Containing HIV PrEP Regimens Safe, Well Tolerated

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Maraviroc (MVC)-containing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens are well tolerated for preventing HIV infection in uninfected women, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Hours Worked Impacted by Kids for Female, Not Male Doctors

MONDAY, Aug. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For women, but not men, in dual-physician couples, weekly hours worked are lower for those with versus those without children, according to a research letter published online Aug. 21 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Anti-Vaccine Info in Pregnancy May Delay Infant Immunization

MONDAY, Aug. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnancy is an important time for educating about infant immunization, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in Pediatrics.

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Zika Does Not Appear to Last in Semen As Long As Thought

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus might not remain in the semen of some infected men as long as previously thought, according to a research letter published in the Aug. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Procalcitonin Testing Not Impacting Antibiotic Rx for COPD

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital adoption of procalcitonin (PCT) testing has had little impact on antibiotic prescribing for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Higher Odds of Infection With Reduced Kidney Function

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- As kidney function declines, infection risk rises, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Candida Antigen Safe, Effective for Treating Common Warts

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Candida antigen is a promising, effective, and safe immunotherapeutic treatment for common warts, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the International Journal of Dermatology.

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FDA: Potential Contamination in Some Liquid Pharma Products

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced a recall of numerous liquid pharmaceutical products because of possible bacterial contamination that could cause severe infections in vulnerable patients.

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Emergency Departments See Few Cases of Sepsis in Adolescents

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A typical emergency department sees few cases of sepsis among adolescents, according to a research letter published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Studies Used for FDA Approval of Device Changes Often Low Quality

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many studies used to support U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of high-risk medical device modifications are not controlled; and efficacy of drugs granted accelerated approval is often confirmed three years after approval, according to two studies published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Specialist Access No Better With Adoption of Access Standards

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adoption of specialty access standards does not improve access to specialists, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Diverse Spectrum of Neurologic Syndromes Seen With Zika

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is associated with increased incidence of neurological syndromes, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Neurology.

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Hyperglycemia May Cause Caries but Not Periodontal Disease

MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For rodents with diabetes, periodontal inflammation may be derived from dental caries rather than periodontal disease (PD), according to a study published online Aug. 9 in Diabetes.

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Review: Killed Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine Efficacious

MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Two doses of killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (kOCV) are efficacious for protecting against cholera for at least two years after vaccination, according to a review published online July 17 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Rebound Seen Predelivery After HIV Suppression in Pregnancy

FRIDAY, Aug. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Women achieving HIV viral suppression in pregnancy can experience viral load rebound predelivery, according to a study published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Rotavirus Vaccine Cuts U.S. Peds Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations

THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of rotavirus vaccination correlated with a reduction in acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-related hospitalization rates among children <5 years, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

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Study Quantifies Condom Use in 15- to 44-Year-Olds in 2011-15

THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Condom use was 23.8 percent for women and 33.7 percent for men aged 15 to 44 years in 2011 to 2015, according to a study published online Aug. 10 by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Live Attenuated Flu Vaccine Not Effective for Children in 2015-16

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- During the 2015 to 2016 season, influenza vaccines reduced the risk of influenza illness, but the live attenuated vaccine was ineffective among children 2 to 17 years of age, according to a study published in the Aug. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Analysis of EBV DNA in Plasma Samples IDs Nasopharyngeal CA

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in plasma samples can identify early asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, according to a study published in the Aug. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Higher Risk of CVD Persists After Hospital Stay for Severe Infection

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease following hospital admission for sepsis or pneumonia that persists for at least five years after the infection, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

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Wound Complication Rate for C-Section Varies With Suture Type

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For women undergoing cesarean section, closure of the skin with poliglecaprone 25 suture is associated with a reduced rate of wound complications, according to a study published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Non-Specialists Can Expand Hepatitis C Treatment Access

TUESDAY, Aug. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Non-specialists, including primary care providers (PCPs) and nurse practitioners (NPs), safely and effectively administer direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) to patients seen in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Guidance Provided for Preventing Practice Billing Errors

MONDAY, Aug. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Strategies can help to prevent medical practice billing errors, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Epidemiology of Acute Otitis Media Changed From 2006-2016

MONDAY, Aug. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Since the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines, the epidemiology of acute otitis media (AOM) has changed considerably, but risk factors have not, according to a study published online Aug. 7 in Pediatrics.

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Review: Antibiotics Effectively Prevent Recurrent Cellulitis

MONDAY, Aug. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent recurrence of cellulitis, according to a review published online June 20 in the Cochrane Library.

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FDA Approves Mavyret for Hepatitis C

FRIDAY, Aug. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Mavyret (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat adults with certain types of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV).

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Moms' Prior Flu Vaccine Doesn't Weaken Newborns' Benefit

FRIDAY, Aug. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Receipt of influenza vaccine the previous year predicts higher baseline antibody titers and decreased peak antibody responses against all influenza strains in pregnant women, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Vaccine.

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Change in Conversion Definition May Improve TB Detection

THURSDAY, Aug. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A change of QuantiFERON-TB interferon (IFN)γ values from <0.2 to >0.7 IU/mL is associated with an increased incidence in the rate of tuberculosis, according to a study published online July 24 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Revenue Exceeds Expenditures for Many ABMS Member Boards

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Overall revenue exceeds expenditures for many American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) member boards, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Little Risk of Oropharyngeal Mucosal Transmission of Zika

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus doesn't appear to be transmitted through saliva, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Nature Communications.

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Meta-Analysis Compares Efficacy of Therapies for Preventing TB

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Isoniazid monotherapy, rifampicin monotherapy, and combination therapies can be efficacious for preventing active tuberculosis (TB) among adults and children with latent TB infection (LTBI), according to research published online Aug. 1 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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