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Antibiotic Prophylaxis May Halt UTI Recurrence in Children

Last Updated: October 28, 2009.

In children with recurrent urinary tract infections, low-dose, continuous oral antibiotic therapy may help prevent future recurrences, according to an Australian study in the Oct. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- In children with recurrent urinary tract infections, low-dose, continuous oral antibiotic therapy may help prevent future recurrences, according to an Australian study in the Oct. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Jonathan C. Craig, Ph.D., of the University of Sydney in Australia, and colleagues randomly assigned 576 children to receive either daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole suspension (2 mg of trimethoprim plus 10 mg of sulfamethoxazole per kilogram of body weight) or placebo for 12 months.

The researchers found that prophylactic antibiotic treatment was associated with a lower rate of urinary tract infection than placebo (13 versus 19 percent).

"The study by Craig et al suggests that antimicrobial prophylaxis for urinary tract infection is modestly effective," the authors of an accompanying editorial write. "Given the modest overall effect size, a one-size-fits-all approach may not be appropriate. The need to detect vesicoureteral reflux is probably the most important issue facing parents and clinicians. The treatment effect of prophylaxis did not differ significantly between children with reflux and those without reflux, although not all participating children underwent voiding cystourethrography."

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