- Left ventricular failure - main overall cause
- Mitral stenosis
- Renal failure with fluid overload
- Iatrogenic fluid overload
Symptoms of pulmonary edema include difficulty breathing, coughing up blood, excessive sweating, anxiety and pale skin. If left untreated, it can lead to death.
Pulmonary edema is diagnosed by a plain chest x-ray. In severe cases the x-ray will show the characteristic 'bat-wing' appearance.