Create Account | Sign In: Author or Forum

Search Symptoms

Category: Pulmonology

Back to Medical Reference

Pulmonary Fibrosis overview

Published: July 08, 2009. Updated: November 02, 2017

Pulmonary fibrosis represent a large number of conditions that involve the parenchyma of the lung -- the alveoli, the alveolar epithelium, the capillary endothelium, and the spaces between these structures, as well as the perivascular and lymphatic tissues. The histologic hallmark and chief diagnostic criterion of interstitial pneumonia is a heterogeneous appearance at low magnification with alternating areas of normal lung, interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and honeycomb changes.


  • Cryptogenic (idiopathic)
  • Extrinsic allergic alveolitis
  • Asbestosis
  • Infective (TB)
  • Aspiration pneumonia
  • Collagen vascular diseases
  • SLE
  • Rheumatoid
  • Sarcoid
  • Scleroderma
  • Iatrogenic
    • Amiodarone
    • Busulphan
    • Bleomycin
    • Radiotherapy


Symptoms of pulmonary edema include difficulty breathing, coughing up blood, excessive sweating, anxiety and pale skin. If left untreated, it can lead to death.


Pulmonary fibrosis is diagnosed by a plain chest x-ray. The x-ray will show the characteristic the diffuse reticular or reticulo-nodular appearance.

Previous: Pulmonary embolism Next: Acromegaly

Reader comments on this article are listed below. Review our comments policy.

Submit your opinion:





Remember my personal information

Notify me of follow-up comments?

Submit the word you see below: