is part of the spectrum of auto-immune diseases and is related to Graves' disease, lymphocytic thyroiditis as well as other organ related auto-immune conditions such as Addison's disease, diabetes, premature menopause and vitiligo.
Hashimoto's is a lymphocytic and plasmacytic thyroid inflammation that eventually destroys the thyroid.
The gland is firm by palpation. Patients may undergo an initial phase of thyrotoxicosis (Hashitoxicosis) but eventually are rendered either euthyroid or hypothyroid. Microsomal antibodies indicate the autoimmune nature of the disease.
- Free T4 test
- Serum TSH
Thyroid autoantibodies are frequently present:
- antithyroid peroxidase antibody
- antithyroglobulin antibody
Thyroid antibodies present in 95% of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis make it possible to diagnose this disease without surgery or biopsy. A biopsy from the gland may in some cases be needed to confirm the diagnosis.
Patients require permanent thyroid replacement. Rarely, surgery may be needed if the thyroid gland gets too big.