Cancer Staging Systems
Staging of Lung cancer
Last Update: Sunday January 4th, 2004 7:15 PM GMT
|Lung Cancer News|
Primary tumor (T)
TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed, or tumor proven by the presence of malignant cells in sputum or bronchial washings but not visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy
T0: No evidence of primary tumor
Tis: Carcinoma in situ
T1: A tumor that is 3 cm or less in greatest dimension, surrounded by lung or visceral pleura, and without bronchoscopic evidence of invasion more proximal than the lobar bronchus (i.e., not in the main bronchus).
T2: A tumor with any of the following features of size or extent:
- More than 3 cm in greatest dimension
- Involves the main bronchus, 2 cm or more distal to the carina
- Invades the visceral pleura
- Associated with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis that extends to the hilar region but does not involve the entire lung
T3: A tumor of any size that directly invades any of the following: chestwall (including superior sulcus tumors), diaphragm, mediastinal pleura, parietal pericardium; or tumor in the main bronchus less than 2 cm distal to the carina but without involvement of the carina; or associated atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis of the entire lung
T4: A tumor of any size that invades any of the following: mediastinum, heart, great vessels, trachea, esophagus, vertebral body, carina; or separate tumor nodules in the same lobe; or tumor with a malignant pleural effusion.
Regional lymph nodes (N)
- NX: Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
- N0: No regional lymph node metastasis
- N1: Metastasis to ipsilateral peribronchial and/or ipsilateral hilar lymph nodes, and intrapulmonary nodes including involvement by direct extension of the primary tumor
- N2: Metastasis to ipsilateral mediastinal and/or subcarinal lymph node(s)
- N3: Metastasis to contralateral mediastinal, contralateral hilar, ipsilateral or contralateral scalene, or supraclavicular lymph node(s)
Distant metastasis (M)
- MX: Distant metastasis cannot be assessed
- M0: No distant metastasis
- M1: Distant metastasis present.
- TX, N0, M0
- Tis, N0, M0
- T1, N0, M0
- T2, N0, M0
- T1, N1, M0
- T2, N1, M0
- T3, N0, M0
- T1, N2, M0
- T2, N2, M0
- T3, N1, M0
- T3, N2, M0
- Any T, N3, M0
- T4, any N, M0
- Any T, any N, M1
- Lung. In: American Joint Committee on Cancer.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2002, pp 167-181.
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