Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used) or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. Medically laproscopic surgery refers only to operations within the abdomen or pelvic cavity.
In the laparoscopy procedure, the abdomen is filled with carbon dioxide gas so that the abdominal wall balloons away from the internal organs. The surgeon makes a series of small cuts (5-15 mm) and inserts a laparoscope, a small telescope-like instrument. Using fibre optic technology, video cameras (videoscopic procedures using a laparoscope or endoscope) allows the surgeon to see what he is doing. The other cuts allow the entrance of the instrument used to cut, sew or burn. The surgery may take anything between half an hour to several hours.
This approach hopefully minimizes operative blood loss and post-operative pain, and speeds recovery times. However the restricted vision, difficult handling of the instruments (hand-eye coordination), lack of tactile perception and the limited working area can increase the possibility of damage to surrounding organs and vessels, either accidentally or through the difficultly of procedures.
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