The Vas Deferens, the tubes which connect the testicles to the prostate, are cut and closed. This prevents sperm produced in the testicles to reach the semenal fluid (mostly produced in the prostate) during ejaculation.
A vasectomy should not be confused with castration: vasectomy does not involve removal of the testicles and it affects neither the production of male sex hormones (mainly testosterone) nor their secretion into the bloodstream. Therefore sexual desire (libido) and the ability to have an erection and an orgasm with an ejaculation are not affected.
In order to allow for reproduction (via artificial insemination) after vasectomy, some men opt for cryostorage of sperm before sterilization. However, the long term viability of spermatozoa in cryostorage is questionable.
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